During the COVID-19 outbreak, the auscultation of heart and lung sounds has played an important role in the comprehensive diagnosis and real-time monitoring of confirmed cases. With clinicians wearing protective clothing in isolation wards, a potato chip tube stethoscope, which is a secure and flexible substitute for a conventional stethoscope, has been used by Chinese medical workers in the first-line treatment of COVID-19. In this study, an optimal design for this simple cylindrical stethoscope is proposed based on the fundamental theory of acoustic waveguides. Analyses of the cutoff frequency, sound power transmission coefficient, and sound wave propagation in the uniform lossless tube provide theoretical guidance for selecting the geometric parameters for this simple cylindrical stethoscope. A basic investigation into the auscultatory performances of the original tube and the optimal tube with proposed dimensions was conducted both in a semi-anechoic chamber and in a quiet laboratory. Both experimental results and front-line doctors' clinical feedback endorse the proposed theoretical optimization.