2020 update on the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in pediatric kidney disease and its interactions with coronavirus

Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Katharina Lanza, Vitória Andrade Palmeira, Larissa Braga Costa, Joseph T. Flynn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The last decade was crucial for our understanding of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) as a two-axis, counter-regulatory system, divided into the classical axis, formed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II), and the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), and the alternative axis comprising angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), and the Mas receptor. Breakthrough discoveries also took place, with other RAAS endopeptides being described, including alamandine and angiotensin A. In this review, we characterize the two RAAS axes and the role of their components in pediatric kidney diseases, including childhood hypertension (HTN), pediatric glomerular diseases, congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also present recent findings on potential interactions between the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and components of the RAAS, as well as potential implications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for pediatric kidney diseases.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Volume36
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2021

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